Trenton Art

Trenton Art
Please recommend a list of 8-10 universities or liberal arts colleges i should apply to w/ my stats?

Please indicate reaches, mids, safeties. I’m majoring in biology/chemistry, so the schools need to have a strong and respected science program.

My stats are:
Ranked top 1% of class
Going to be a senior
1430 (math and critical reading SAT score)+ 2130 total
780 Math 2
720 Chemistry
690 US History
Taking Hardest Courseload at my School
Volunteer at Trenton Soup Kitchen
Volunteer at Hospital
African American
Volunteer at special kids camp in the YMCA
VP of science club
Captain President of Math Club
President of Latin Club
Active Key Club Member
Low-income family, so not sure if ivy’s are a good match deceased father

Excellent list of accomplishments and your profile places you in great standing for scholarships/aid so don’t let the high cost of an Ivy put you off. Schools I would recommend that have top-flight Biology programs are as follows:

Dartmouth
Duke
University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Boston University
University of Virginia
Emory
Northwestern
University of Iowa

The public Ivys like the University of North Carolina, the University of Virginia and the University of Iowa would be great choices for you. They offer large diverse student bodies, an excellent education at a relatively reasonable cost (even for out of state tuition), outstanding resources for students in the sciences and they’re each located in an ideal
(and safe) college town environment.

samlowephoto Tours Trenton’s Art All Night 2010

Salt Glazed

Salt Glazed
Is Iron Oxide a colouring agent or Glazing material for Stoneware products?

We make stoneware Salt Glazed pipes and fittings by coal firing method. Since we donot get good colour on bottom rows in our down draft kilns we tried to experiment with using GERU i.e. clay with high iron oxide content. This gave very good results but we are being told it will be considered as glazing and not colouring. We need the clarification whether applying clay with high iron oxide content will be taken as glazing or colouring and whether this clay will be called glaze or colouring agent?

Generally speaking if you mixed the GERU completely with your usual clay, it is coloring. A top coating would be considered as glazing by most (and for terracotta, the color must extend throughout and not just be on the surface).

Most stoneware is made entirely of Geru clay. This is part of the expense of making the items.

small SALT KILN, testing ash and salt glazes. Aurora Pine

Ottoman China Ceramic

Ottoman China Ceramic

Chinese architecture

Features

Model of a Chinese Siheyuan in Beijing, which shows off the symmetry, enclose heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base, with the vertical walls not as well emphasized.

Architectural Bilateral symmetry

An important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on articulation and bilateral symmetry, which signifies balance. Bilateral symmetry and the articulation of buildings are found everywhere in Chinese architecture, from palace complexes to humble farmhouses. When possible, plans for renovation and extension of a house will often try to maintain this symmetry provided that there is enough capital to do so. Secondary elements are positioned either side of main structures as two wings to maintain overall bilateral symmetry.

In contrast to the buildings, Chinese gardens are a notable exception which tends to be asymmetrical. The principle underlying the garden’s composition is to create enduring flow.

Enclosure

Que towers along the walls of Tang-era Chang’an, as depicted in this 8th-century mural from Prince Li Chongrun’s tomb at the Qianling Mausoleum in Shaanxi

Contemporary Western architectural practices typically involve surrounding a building by an open yard on the property. This contrasts with much of traditional Chinese architecture, which involves constructing buildings or building complexes that take up an entire property but encloses open spaces within itself. These enclosed spaces come in two forms: the open courtyard () and the “sky well” ().

The use of open courtyards is a common feature in many types of Chinese architectures. This is best exemplified in the Siheyuan, which consists of an empty space surrounded by buildings connected with one another either directly or through verandas.

Although large open courtyards are less commonly found in southern Chinese architecture, the concept of a “open space” surrounded by buildings, which is seen in northern courtyard complexes, can be seen in the southern building structure known as the “sky well”. This structure is essentially a relatively enclosed courtyard formed from the intersections of closely spaced buildings and offer small opening to the sky through the roof space from the floor up.

These enclosures serve in temperature regulation and in venting the building complexes. Northern courtyards are typically open and facing the south to allow the maximum exposure of the building windows and walls to the sun while keeping the cold northern winds out. Southern sky wells are relatively small and serves to collect rain water from the roof tops while restricting the amount of sunlight that enters the building. Sky wells also serve as vents for rising hot air, which draws cool air from the lowers stories of the house and allows for exchange of cool air with the outside.

Hierarchical

A stone-carved pillar-gate, or que (), 6 m (20 ft) in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya’an, Sichuan province, Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD); notice the stone-carved decorations of roof tile eaves, despite the fact that Han Dynasty stone que (part of the walled structures around tomb entrances) lacked wooden or ceramic components (but often imitated wooden buildings with ceramic roof tiles).

The projected hierarchy and importance and uses of buildings in traditional Chinese architecture are based on the strict placement of buildings in a property/complex. Buildings with doors facing the front of the property are considered more important than those facing the sides. Building facing away from the front of the property are the least important.

As well, building in the rear and more private parts of the property are held in higher esteem and reserve for elder members of the family or ancestral plaques than buildings near the front, which are typically for servants and hired help. Front facing buildings in the back of properties are used particularly for rooms of celebratory rites and for the placement of ancestral halls and plaques. In multiple courtyard complexes, Central courtyard and their buildings are considered more important than peripheral ones, the latter which are typically used as storage or servant’s rooms or kitchens.

Horizontal emphasis

Classical Chinese buildings, especially those of the wealthy are built with an emphasis on breadth and less on height, with close heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base, with the vertical walls not well emphasized. This contrasts Western architecture, which tends to grow in height and depth. Chinese architecture stresses the visual impact of the width of the buildings.

The halls and palaces in the Forbidden City, for example, have rather low ceilings when compared to equivalent stately buildings in the West, but their external appearances suggest the all-embracing nature of imperial China. These ideas have found their way into modern Western architecture, for example through the work of Jrn Utzon. This of course does not apply to pagodas, which are and limited to religious building complexes.

Cosmological concepts

Chinese architecture from early times used concepts from Chinese cosmology such as feng shui (geomancy) and daoism to organize construction and layout from common residences to imperial and religious structures. This includes the use of:

Screen walls to face the main entrance of the house, which stems from the belief that evil things travel on straight lines.

Talismans and imagery of good fortune:

Door gods displayed on doorways to ward evil and encourage the flow of good fortune

Three anthropomorphic figures representing Fu Lu Shou () stars are prominently displayed, sometimes with the proclamation “the threes star are present”()

Animals and fruits that symbolize good fortune and prosperity, such as bats and pomegranates, respectively. The association is often done through rebuses.

Orienting the structure with its back to elevated landscape and ensuring that there is water in the front. Considerations are also made such that the generally windowless back of the structure faces the north, where the wind is coldest in the winter

Ponds, pools, wells, and other water sources are usually built into the structure

The use of certain colors, numbers and the cardinal directions in traditional Chinese architecture reflected the belief in a type of immanence, where the nature of a thing could be wholly contained in its own form. Although the Western tradition gradually developed a body of architectural literature, little was written on the subject in China, and the earliest text, the Kaogongji, was never disputed. However, ideas about cosmic harmony and the order of the city were usually interpreted at their most basic level, so a reproduction of the “ideal” city never existed. Beijing as reconstructed throughout the 15th and 16th century remains one of the best examples of traditional Chinese town planning.

Construction

Structure

Main article: Ancient Chinese wooden architecture

Tenon and mortice work of tie beams and cross beams, from Li Jie’s building manual Yingzao Fashi, printed in 1103.

Diagram of corbel wood bracket supports (“Dougong”) holding up a multi-inclined roof, from the architectural treatise Yingzao Fashi (1103 AD)

Use of large structural timbers for primary support of the roof of a building. Wooden timber, usually large trimmed logs, are used as load-bearing columns and lateral beams for framing buildings and supporting the roofs. These structural timbers are prominently displayed in finished structures. However, it is not known how the ancient builders raised the huge wooden load bearing columns into position.

Although, structural walls are also commonly found in Chinese architecture, most timber framed architecture are preferred when economically feasible.

Timber frames are typically constructed with jointnary and doweling alone, seldom with the use of glue or nails. Structural stability is further ensured through the use of heavy beams and roofs, which weighs the structure down.

Using even numbers of columns in a building structure to produce odd numbers of bays (). With the inclusion of a main door to a building in the centre bay, symmetry is maintained

The common use of curtain walls or door panels to delineate rooms or enclose a building, with the general deemphasis of load-bearing walls in most higher class construction

Flat roofs are uncommon while gabled roofs almost omnipresent in traditional Chinese architecture. Three main types of roofs are found

Straight inclined: Roofs with a single incline. These are the most economical type of roofing and are most prevalent in commoner architectures

Multi-inclined: Roofs with 2 or more sections of incline. These roofs are used in higher class constructions, from the dwellings of wealthy commoners to palaces

Sweeping: Roofs with a sweeping curvature that rises at the corners of the roof. The types of roof construction are usually reserved for temples and palaces although it may also be found in the homes of the wealthy. In the former cases, the ridges of the roof are usually highly decorated with ceramic figurines.

The roof apex of a large hall is usually topped with a ridge of tiles for both decorative purposes but also to weight down the layers of roofing tiles for stability. These ridges are often well decorated, especially for religious or palatial structures. In some regions of China, the ridges are sometimes extended or incorporated from the walls of the building to form matouqiang (horse-head walls), which serve as a fire deterrent from drifting embers.

Materials and history

Models of watchtowers and other buildings made during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25220 AD); while these models were made of ceramics, the real versions were made of easily perishable wood and have not survived.

Unlike other building construction materials, old wooden structures often do not survive because they are more vulnerable to weathering and fires and are naturally subjected to rotting over time. Although now nonexistent wooden residential towers, watchtowers, and pagodas predated it by centuries, the Songyue Pagoda built in 523 is the oldest extant pagoda in China; its use of brick instead of wood had much to do with its endurance throughout the centuries. From the Tang Dynasty (618907) onwards, brick and stone architecture gradually became more common and replaced wooden edifices. The earliest of this transition can be seen in building projects such as the Zhaozhou Bridge completed in 605 or the Xumi Pagoda built in 636, yet stone and brick architecture is known to have been used in subterranean tomb architecture of earlier dynasties.

In the early 20th century, there were no known fully wood-constructed Tang Dynasty buildings that still existed; the oldest so far discovered was the 1931 find of Guanyin Pavilion at Dule Monastery, dated 984 during the Song. This was until the architectural historians Liang Sicheng (19011972), Lin Huiyin (19041955), Mo Zongjiang (19161999), and Ji Yutang (1902. 1960s) discovered that the East Hall of Foguang Temple on Mount Wutai in Shanxi was reliably dated to the year 857 in June 1937. The groundfloor dimensions for this monastic hall measures 34 by 17.66 m (111 ft by 57 ft). A year after the discovery at Foguang, the much smaller main hall of nearby Nanchan Temple on Mount Wutai was reliably dated to the year 782, while a total of six Tang era wooden buildings have been found by the 21st century. The oldest existent multistory wooden pagoda that has survived intact is the Pagoda of Fogong Temple of the Liao Dynasty, located in Ying County of Shanxi. While the East Hall of Foguang Temple features only seven types of bracket arms in its construction, the 11th century Pagoda of Fogong Temple features a total of fifty-four.

The earliest walls and platforms in China were of rammed earth construction, and over time, brick and stone became more frequently used. This can be seen in ancient sections of the Great Wall of China, while the brick and stone Great Wall seen today is a renovation of the Ming Dynasty (13681644).

Classification by structure

A pavilion inside the Zhuozheng Garden in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, one of the finest gardens in China

The Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595605 during the Sui Dynasty. It is the oldest fully-stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge in the world.

Chinese classifications for architecture include:

(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tng) ting (Chinese pavilions)

(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Ta) tai (terraces)

(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Lu) lou (Multistory buildings)

(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: G) ge (Two-story pavilions)

() xuan (Verandas with windows)

ta (Chinese pagodas)

xie (Pavilions or houses on terraces)

wu (Rooms along roofed corridors)

(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dugng) dougong interlocking wooden brackets, often used in clusters to support roofs and add ornamentation.

Caisson domed or coffered ceiling

Architectural types

Commoner

As for the commoners, be they bureaucrats, merchants or farmers, their houses tended to follow a set pattern: the center of the building would be a shrine for the deities and the ancestors, which would also be used during festivities. On its two sides were bedrooms for the elders; the two wings of the building (known as “guardian dragons” by the Chinese) were for the junior members of the family, as well as the living room, the dining room, and the kitchen, although sometimes the living room could be very close to the center.

Sometimes the extended families became so large that one or even two extra pairs of “wings” had to be built. This resulted in a U-shaped building, with a courtyard suitable for farm work; merchants and bureaucrats, however, preferred to close off the front with an imposing front gate. All buildings were legally regulated, and the law held that the number of storeys, the length of the building and the colours used depended on the owner’s class. Some commoners living in areas plagued by bandits built communal fortresses called Tulou for protection.

Imperial

There were certain architectural features that were reserved solely for buildings built for the Emperor of China. One example is the use of yellow roof tiles; yellow having been the Imperial color, yellow roof tiles still adorn most of the buildings within the Forbidden City. The Temple of Heaven, however, uses blue roof tiles to symbolize the sky. The roofs are almost invariably supported by brackets (“dougong”), a feature shared only with the largest of religious buildings. The wooden columns of the buildings, as well as the surface of the walls, tend to be red in color. Black is also a famous color often used in pagodas. They believe the gods are inspired by the black color to descend on to the earth.

The Chinese five-clawed dragon, adopted by the first Ming emperor for his personal use, was used as decoration on the beams, pillars, and on the doors on Imperial architecture. Curiously, the dragon was never used on roofs of imperial buildings.

Only the buildings used by the imperial family were allowed to have nine jian (, space between two columns); only the gates used by the Emperor could have five arches, with the centre one, of course, being reserved for the Emperor himself. The ancient Chinese favored the color red. The buildings faced south because the north had a cold wind.

A vaulted tomb chamber in Luoyang, built during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25220 AD)  

A tomb chamber of Luoyang, built during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25220 AD) with incised wall decorations  

The Great Red Gate at the Ming Tombs near Beijing, built in the 15th century  

The yellow roof tiles and red walls in the Forbidden City (Palace Museum) grounds in Beijing, built during the Yongle era (14021424) of the Ming Dynasty  

Beijing became the capital of China after the Mongol invasion of the 13th century, completing the easterly migration of the Chinese capital begun since the Jin dynasty, the Ming uprising in 1368 reasserted Chinese authority and fixed Beijing as the seat of imperial power for the next five centuries. The Emperor and the Empress lived in palaces on the central axis of the Forbidden City, the Crown Prince at the eastern side, and the concubines at the back (therefore the numerous imperial concubines were often referred to as “The Back Palace Three Thousand”). However, during the mid-Qing Dynasty, the Emperor’s residence was moved to the western side of the complex. It is misleading to speak of an axis in the Western sense of a visual perspective ordering facades, rather the Chinese axis is a line of privilege, usually built upon, regulating access – there are no vistas, but a series of gates and pavilions.

Numerology heavily influenced Imperial Architecture, hence the use of nine in much of construction (nine being the greatest single digit number) and reason why The Forbidden City in Beijing is said to have 9,999.9 rooms – just short of the mythical 10,000 rooms in heaven. The importance of the East (the direction of the rising sun) in orienting and siting Imperial buildings is a form of solar worship found in many ancient cultures, where the notion of Ruler is affiliated with the Sun.

The tombs and mausoleums of imperial family members, such as the 8th century Tang Dynasty tombs at the Qianling Mausoleum, can also be counted as part of the imperial tradition in architecture. These above-ground earthen mounds and pyramids had subterranean shaft-and-vault structures that were lined with brick walls since at least the Warring States (481221 BCE).

Religious

See also: Temple (Chinese)

Generally speaking, Buddhist architecture follow the imperial style. A large Buddhist monastery normally has a front hall, housing the statue of a Bodhisattva, followed by a great hall, housing the statues of the Buddhas. Accommodations for the monks and the nuns are located at the two sides. Some of the greatest examples of this come from the 18th century temples of the Puning Temple and the Putuo Zongcheng Temple. Buddhist monasteries sometimes also have pagodas, which may house the relics of the Gautama Buddha; older pagodas tend to be four-sided, while later pagodas usually have eight-sides.

Daoist architecture, on the other hand, usually follow the commoners’ style. The main entrance is, however, usually at the side, out of superstition about demons which might try to enter the premise. (See feng shui.) In contrast to the Buddhists, in a Daoist temple the main deity is located at the main hall at the front, the lesser deities at the back hall and at the sides.

A group of temples at the top of Mount Taishan, where structures have been built at the site since the 3rd century BC during the Han Dynasty  

The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi’an, built in 652 during the Tang Dynasty  

The Nine Pinnacle Pagoda, built in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty  

A timber hall built in 857 during the Tang Dynasty, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple in Mount Wutai, Shanxi  

The Three Pagodas of Chong Sheng Temple, Dali City, Yunnan, built in the 9th and 10th century  

The Fogong Temple Pagoda, located in Ying county, Shanxi province, built in 1056 during the Liao Dynasty, is the oldest existent fully-wooden pagoda in China  

The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD during the Song Dynasty  

The Temple of Heaven in Beijing, built in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty  

The Putuo Zongcheng Temple, built from 1767 to 1771 during the reign of Qianlong, represents a fusion of Chinese and Tibetan architectural style  

Hua Si Gongbei (the mausoleum of Ma Laichi) in Linxia City, Gansu  

The tallest pre-modern building in China was built for both religious and martial purposes. The Liaodi Pagoda of 1055 AD stands at a height of 84 m (275 ft), and although it served as the crowning pagoda of the Kaiyuan monastery in old Dingzhou, Hebei, it was also used as a military watchtower for Song Dynasty soldiers to observe potential Liao Dynasty enemy movements.

The architecture of the mosques and gongbei tomb shrines of China’s Muslims often combines traditional Chinese styles with Middle Eastern influences.

Urban planning

Main article: Ancient Chinese urban planning

Chinese urban planning is based on fengshui geomancy and the field-well system of land division both used since the Neolithic age. The basic field-well diagram is overlaid with the luoshu, a magic square divided into 9 sub-squares, and linked with Chinese numerology.

Miniature models

Main article: Science and technology of the Han Dynasty#Structural engineering

Although mostly only ruins of brick and rammed earth walls and towers from ancient China (i.e. before the 6th century AD) have survived, information on ancient Chinese architecture (especially wooden architecture) can be discerned from more or less realistic clay models of buildings created by the ancient Chinese as funerary items. This is similar to the paper joss houses burned in some modern Chinese funerals. The following models were made during the Han Dynasty (202 BCE 220 CE):

A pottery palace from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

Two residential towers joined by a bridge, pottery miniature, Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

A pottery tower from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

A ceramic model of a house with a courtyard, from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

A pottery gristmill from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

A pottery tower from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

A pottery model of a well from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

A pottery tower from the Han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD)  

During the Jin Dynasty (265420) and the Six Dynasties, miniature models of buildings or entire architectural ensembles were often made to decorate the tops of the so-called “soul vases” (hunping), found in many tombs of that period.

See also

Architecture of the Song Dynasty

Architecture of Hong Kong

Architecture of Penang

Caisson (Asian architecture)

Chinese art

Chinese pagodas

Architectural history

Feng Shui

Ancient Chinese wooden architecture

Hakka architecture

Hutong

Imperial roof decoration

Imperial guardian lions

Lingnan architecture

Pagoda

Shanghai – for a gallery of modern buildings

Shikumen

Siheyuan

Walled villages of Hong Kong

Yu Hao

Beijing city wall

Precious Belt Bridge

Note

^ Liang, Ssu-ch’eng, 1984, A pictorial history of Chinese architecture : a study of the development of its structural system and the evolution of its types, ed. by Wilma Fairbank, Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

^ a b c d Knapp, Ronald G.; Spence, Jonathan; Ong, A. Chester (2006), Chinese Houses: The Architectural Heritage of a Nation, Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 978-0804835374 

^ Liu, Xujie (2002). “The Qin and Han Dynasties” in Chinese Architecture, 3360. Edited by Nancy S. Steinhardt. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300095597. Page 55.

^ Steinhardt, Nancy N. (2005). “Pleasure tower model,” in Recarving China’s Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the ‘Wu Family Shrines’, 275281. Edited by Naomi Noble Richard. New Haven and London: Yale University Press and Princeton University Art Museum. ISBN 0300107978. Pages 279280.

^ Weston, Richard (2002), Utzon, Edition Blondal, pp. 221, ISBN 978-8788978988 

^ a b Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “The Tang Architectural Icon and the Politics of Chinese Architectural History,” The Art Bulletin (Volume 86, Number 2, 2004): 228254. Page 228.

^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “The Tang Architectural Icon and the Politics of Chinese Architectural History,” The Art Bulletin (Volume 86, Number 2, 2004): 228254. Page 233.

^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “The Tang Architectural Icon and the Politics of Chinese Architectural History,” The Art Bulletin (Volume 86, Number 2, 2004): 228254. Page 228229.

^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “The Tang Architectural Icon and the Politics of Chinese Architectural History,” The Art Bulletin (Volume 86, Number 2, 2004): 228254. Page 238.

^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “Liao: An Architectural Tradition in the Making,” Artibus Asiae (Volume 54, Number 1/2, 1994): 539. Page 13.

^ Guo, Qinghua. “Tomb Architecture of Dynastic China: Old and New Questions,” Architectural History (Volume 47, 2004): 124. Page 12.

^ Steinhardt (2004), 228229.

^ Schinz, 1996

^ Dien, Albert E. (2007), Six dynasties civilization, Early Chinese civilization series, Yale University Press, pp. 214-215, ISBN 0300074042, http://books.google.com.au/books?id=0zp6iMZoqt0C&pg=PA214 

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Architecture of China

Liang, Ssu-ch’eng 1984, A pictorial history of Chinese architecture : a study of the development of its structural system and the evolution of its types, ed. by Wilma Fairbanks, Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press

Schinz, Alfred (1996). The magic square: cities in ancient China. Edition Axel Menges. pp. 428. ISBN 3930698021. http://books.google.com/books?id=qhcRYkz-I3YC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 

Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “Liao: An Architectural Tradition in the Making,” Artibus Asiae (Volume 54, Number 1/2, 1994): 539.

Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. “The Tang Architectural Icon and the Politics of Chinese Architectural History,” The Art Bulletin (Volume 86, Number 2, 2004): 228254.

Weston, Richard. 2002. Utzon : inspiration, vision, architecture. Hellerup: Blondal.

Further reading

Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan, Sir Banister Fletcher’s a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition, 1996 (first published 1896). ISBN 0750622679. Cf. Part Four, Chapter 24.

Sickman L and Soper A. The Art and Architecture of China (Penguin Books, 1956).

External links

Yin Yu Tang: A Chinese Home To explore an in depth look into the ancient architecture of the Huang family domestic life in China, the Yin Yu Tang house offers an interactive view of the typical domestic architecture of the Qing dynasty.

Herbert Offen Research Collection An excellent bibliography of publicly accessible books and manuscripts on Chinese architecture.

Traditional Architecture of China The Architectural Style from the Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty

Islamic Architecture in China Introduction to the Chinese Mosques in South, West, and North respectively

Chinese Vernacular Architecture & General Chinese Architecture–Web Links Chinese Vernacular Architecture & General Chinese Architectureeb Links

Chinese Residential Houses Ten types of Chinese residential houses

Asian Historical Architecture

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Architecture of Asia

Sovereign

states

Afghanistan  Armenia1  Azerbaijan1  Bahrain  Bangladesh  Bhutan  Brunei  Burma2  Cambodia  People’s Republic of China  Cyprus1  East Timor3  Egypt4  Georgia4  India  Indonesia  Iran  Iraq  Israel  Japan  Jordan  Kazakhstan4  North Korea  South Korea  Kuwait  Kyrgyzstan  Laos  Lebanon  Malaysia  Maldives  Mongolia  Nepal  Oman  Pakistan  Philippines  Qatar  Russia4  Saudi Arabia  Singapore  Sri Lanka  Syria  Tajikistan  Republic of China5  Thailand  Turkey4  Turkmenistan  United Arab Emirates  Uzbekistan  Vietnam  Yemen

States with limited

recognition

Abkhazia1  Nagorno-Karabakh  Northern Cyprus  Palestine  South Ossetia1 

Dependencies,

autonomies,

other territories

Aceh  Adjara1  Akrotiri and Dhekelia  Altai  British Indian Ocean Territory  Buryatia  Christmas Island  Cocos (Keeling) Islands  Guangxi  Hong Kong  Inner Mongolia  Iraqi Kurdistan  Khakassia  Macau  Nakhchivan  Ningxia  Papua  Sakha Republic  Tibet  Tuva  West Papua  Xinjiang 

1 Sometimes included in Europe, depending on the border definitions.  2 Officially known as Myanmar.  3 Sometimes included in Oceania, and also known as Timor-Leste.  4 Transcontinental country.  5 Commonly known as Taiwan. 

Categories: Science and technology in China | Chinese architecture | Chinese architectural history | Architectural history | Architectural stylesHidden categories: Articles containing simplified Chinese language text | Articles containing traditional Chinese language text
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Tips on Preserving Ceramic Dinnerware

Ceramic dinnerware is very fragile. It must be properly handled to avoid breaking.

Dinnerware is a type of formal china setting that comprises of a salad plate, dinner plate, tea cup and saucer. Some sets have bread and butter plate. These pieces of china are very fragile items that tend to break easily. Know how to take care of these items properly.

Decide and finalize on the type of dinnerware you need. For formal occasion, porcelain or bone china is the best option. Stoneware is the type you can use every day.

You can only handwash your antique china. Don’t put it in a dishwasher. Take note that antique china is very fragile because of its age and usage. When you handwash, scrape off the plates, and then, wash it in sudsy, warm water dishwasher. Make sure you rinse well and allow air drying.

Put a clean sink mat or dish towel along the bottom part of the sink. This will not only pad it, it will also prevent breaking fine crystals and dinnerware.

This is the proper order of cleaning your set: glassware, dinnerware, then flatware and the pans.

You can wash modern china, earthenware and stoneware inside the dishwasher.
Make sure that flatware as well as other types of metallic objects is segregated from your dinnerware. The rubbing effect of dinnerware and metals can leave gray marks.

You can remove gray marks by scrubbing it with a very mild cleanser like Bon Ami or Bar Keeper’s Friend. Steer clear of lemon-scented detergents. This can damage dinnerware.

Use the shortest cycle when washing dinnerware. Line your storage areas with cloth, paper towels or other dish protectors.

You can hang your tea cups onto hooks or you can stack them up. Make sure you place a protector in-between the cups.

Stoneware is basically sturdier. They are fired at higher temperatures just like Porcelain China. However, porcelain is noted as translucent. Kaolin, a type of white clay, is the key ingredient of porcelain china.

Similar to porcelain china and Stoneware, bone china is also fired at higher temperatures. It is extremely durable, lightweight and thin. Corelleware, on the other hand, is a durable glass-based American dinnerware. It is popular because of its low weight, durability and microwaveable features.

When heating food inside the microwave, on no account should you use metallic trimmed type of dinnerware. Furthermore, fine china settings include a salad plate, dinner plate, tea cup and saucer set as well as a bread and butter plate. For casual dinner settings, use a salad plate, dinner plate, a mug and a bowl.

Ceramic Italian Dinnerware needs proper maintenance to last a long time.
Never use your Italian ceramics for reheating or cooking purposes. On no account should you place these inside a microwave, oven or a burner. Although they were fired 2x at a temperature of no less than 1600oF, they are still prone to chipping or cracking.

Avoid any sudden change of temperature. When serving very hot liquids or foods, temper your ceramic plates with warm tap water first. It avoids cracking or thermal shock.

Although this is dishwasher safe, keep it on low heat and use only good quality detergents. Take note on where you place it inside your dishwasher. Each piece should never touch each other during the cycle.

When removing dry food and stains, place the Italian ceramic dinnerware in warm, soapy water and allow soaking for several minutes. For worst cases, you can use plastic scrubbers. Never use scouring powders or any rough materials for scrubbing.

For tea stains on hand-painted ceramics, mix 2 tablespoons of chlorine bleach with a quart of water. Soak your ceramic cups for about 1 to 2 minutes. After soaking, rinse them thoroughly but gently.

For black marks from cutlery, you can remove them by using non-abrasive and good quality metal cleaner.

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Plate Clearance

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Removing wheel hub on a 2000 Honda Accord.?

Need to replace lug studs on a 2000 Honda Accord.

FACTS: Wheels hubs have to be removed to get clearance to install new lug studs and remove old ones. Cutting away the backing plate isn’t enough for clearance. I’ve removed wheels, breaks and axle nuts. I can slide the axles in and out easily. The car is in my garage. Can’t drive the car to the shop because two studs are broken on one side and 1 on another side (both fronts wheels).

QUESTIONS:

1.) What’s the best way to remove the the hubs?
2.) Do I need special tools?
3.) Do I need to replace the bearings after the wheel hubs are removed?
4.) With this much work, should I just replace all the studs while I have the hubs out?

Commentary: Apparently most Hondas are designed this way, meaning the hubs have to be removed just to replace broken stubs. Not very smart for Honda.

Thanks!

21 minutes ago

Could be worse – my daughter’s ’93 Accord has to have the steering knuckles (technical name for what you and I call hubs) removed to replace the brake discs!

Anyway, the process in either case involves removing the axle nut (250 ft-lb or more impact wrench unless you are much more manly than I am, but you know that) and unfastening the tie rod end (tie rod end separator – don’t use a pickle fork, which ruins the boot). It is possible to do what you are trying to do without separating the tie rod end, just really inconvenient because the steering knuckle is still attached to the car and the axle may not even come all the way out like that.
EDIT – duh! If the steering is run to that end the axle should come out okay. Next time I should try that!
Of course the brake caliper comes off and gets tied up. The ’93 also requires a 12 point 10 mm socket – accept no substitutes – to remove the odd bolts that hold the rotor if you have to do that much. The axle slips out of the bearings with some taps of a rubber mallet, not enough to brinnel the bearings. I’ve never replaced the bearings after axle changes and never had a bearing get noisy.

Obviously after all that you will want to remove *all* the studs and replace them. And when reassembling the tie rod end (if you have to do that), resist the temptation to lubricate the taper fit. It won’t help getting it apart later and makes it very hard to tighten the nut this time. Oh – new cotter pin there, too.

Installing a Table Saw Zero Clearance Insert

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